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lol雷恩加尔ap:英格蘭Coursework 本科課程作業:脫歐對英國NHS的影響

時間:2019-08-26 11:49來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
在某種程度上,脫歐是全球化進程中的一個障礙。英國脫歐無疑將影響英國在政治和經濟層面的國際地位和聲譽,因為歐洲為英國提供了巨大的市場和資源,這必然對英國經濟產生特殊影響,英
在某種程度上,脫歐是全球化進程中的一個障礙。英國脫歐無疑將影響英國在政治和經濟層面的國際地位和聲譽,因為歐洲為英國提供了巨大的市場和資源,這必然對英國經濟產生特殊影響,英國在歐洲失去了發言權。隨著英國的撤軍,德國和法國在軸心國的力量將進一步加強。脫歐后,英國將或多或少陷入經濟發展停滯,通脹也將上升,英鎊將貶值12%至15%(Pollard,2018年)。國內生產總值增長放緩;通貨膨脹居高不下,失業率從52萬上升到82萬,失業率上升1.6個百分點到2.4個百分點。同時,英國在歐洲單一市場中在貨物、服務、人員和資本自由流動方面所享有的巨大利益也將減少。
Brexit, to some extent, is an impact an obstacle to the process of globalization. Brexit will undoubtedly affect the international status and reputation of the UK on the political and economic level because Europe provides the UK with a vast market and resources, which must have a particular impact on the UK's economy, and the UK has lost its voice in Europe. As the UK withdraws, the force of Germany and France on the axis will be further strengthened. After Brexit, the UK will fall into more or less stagnation of economic development, inflation will rise also, and the pound will depreciate by 12% to 15% (Pollard, 2018). GDP growth is slowing; inflation is high, unemployment rises from 520,000 to 820,000 and unemployment rises by 1.6 to 2.4 percentage points. At the same time, the vast benefits that Britain enjoys in Europe's single market in the free movement of goods, services, people, and capital will be reduced.
國家衛生局(從現在起稱為“NHS”)在英國提供公共衛生服務。從各自的勞動需求來看,國民保健服務需要更多專業的衛生服務人員來服務國際游客。歐洲一體化進程是一個純粹的經濟導向設計(Block Lieb,2018)。最根本的方法是消除國家之間的貿易和投資壁壘,實現經濟資源的自由流通。歐盟認為,自由經濟流動的核心保障之一是“人的自由流動”,但如果人們實現了“自由流動”,必然會從貧困地區流向富裕地區,這就給歐盟帶來了一個問題:隨著一體化的發展,優秀的青年人才進入了歐洲一體化進程。RNAL從南歐、地中海國家流向德國,進入英國的“學徒制”,在很大程度上幫助德國成為歐洲一體化的最大受益者。多年來,英國經濟在歐洲一直是獨一無二的,最頑固的因素之一是它吸引了最好的移民。因此,國民保健服務的專業勞動力將減少。
The National Health Service (from now on called 'NHS') offered the public health service in the United Kingdom. From the respective of the labor requirement, NHS requires more professional health service employees to service international tourists. The European integration process is a purely economic oriented design (Block-Lieb, 2018). The most fundamental method is to dismantle the trade and investment barriers between countries to achieve the free circulation of economic resources. The EU believes that one of the core guarantees of free economic mobility is "free movement of people." But if people realize "free flow", will inevitably flow from poor to rich regions, then creates a problem for the EU: with the development of integration, excellent young talents in Europe's internal flow from southern Europe, the Mediterranean countries to Germany, into the British system of "the apprentice", which to a great extent, help Germany to become the biggest beneficiary of European integration. The British economy has been unique in Europe for many years, and one of the most stubborn factors is the fact that it attracts the best migrants. As a consequence, the professional labor would be reduced for the NHS.
The number of employees of the NHS would be reduced by the reduced requirement of the Europe burden. The European Union's welfare system is well known in the world. It was initially designed in the 1970s and 1980s as a social structure with a ratio of 5:1 between working and retired people (ark, McKee& Atun, 2017). By 2005, however, the rate of working to retired people in Europe had become 4 to 1, and by 2040 it will be down to about 2 to 1, meaning that two working people will have to support one retiree, and the social welfare burden will be more substantial and more substantial. Based on these facts, it is not difficult to see that absorbing immigrants, including the admission of refugees, is not a simple question of good or bad, right or wrong, but a choice that has no choice. Any economy that has entered the post-industrial era will face declining population and aging, as a large number of women enter the labor market directly, and fertility will naturally drop and become irreversible -- there is no precedent for a reversal. The only developed country with a fertility rate of around 2 and a growing population in the United States, which also has a tradition of successful immigration.
The international labor markets were influenced by the economy of the UK so that the status of the economy could affect NHS. This round of globalization more brings to the investors interests makes workers at a disadvantage, create the wealth of the middle class, in the UK to take off the referendum, support to take off the most of it is in the traditional mining, manufacturing, such as the steel industry hit blue-collar middle class, and the strength of support for the most is the upper-middle-class business and finance, British behind the events, the economic globalization objectively brought Britain's social class divide, intensified the class conflict, worsening the economic and social environment, in a wave of the globalization and integration (Stack, Pentecost, & Ravishankar, 2018). If Britain stays in Europe, it will continue to suffer a series of disadvantages. Britain's economic management is much higher than that of Europe, but it has to be reconciled to their management model. Influx Europe immigration is complicated and the integration of the European social, traditional culture or change their original intention and the European mainstream ideology and values, most migration is relative lack of working enthusiasm, just want to get Europe's welfare, housing and other treatment, can really come up with new ideas for the Europe high technology talent shortage, it is not only to European countries to back the heavy financial burden, and what is more important for Europe's social order, for European cultural tradition of erect weaken. If the UK can get rid of this problem and fetter, the UK's federations will highlight a lot of questions, and such things need to be adequately dealt with (Sampson, 2017). Therefore, Brexit may also be the protection policy for the UK in some areas. However, with the increasingly globalized world politics and economy, it is not a wise move for Britain to leave such a vast market of Europe. Instead, it should carry out multilateral negotiations and treaty-making with Europe countries, actively participate in various Europe affairs, and seek for the well-being of its own country and the consolidation of its high power status.
In summary, this leads to a fascinating phenomenon: the increasing economic efficiency, the relatively shrinking income of workers, and the shrinking population and aging population structure of the whole society lead to the declining domestic demand on Brexit, and macro-control cannot change the relative decline. Therefore, the NHS could be influenced by the reduced requirements and reduced the number of the employees.  
 
Reference 
Ark, J. J., McKee, M., & Atun, R. (2017). Brexit: Severe Risks to Britain's National Health Service.American Journal Of Public Health, 107(10), 1594-1596. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304010
Block-Lieb, S. (2018). Reaching to Restructure Across Borders (Without Overreaching), Even After Brexit.American Bankruptcy Law Journal, 92(1), 1-51.
Pollard, M. m. (2018). EMBRACING DISCOMFORT: BREXIT, GROUPTHINK AND THE CHALLENGE OF TRUE CRITICAL THINKING. Policy & Practice: A Development Education Review, (26), 173-186.
Sampson, T. (2017). Brexit: The Economics of International Disintegration. Journal Of Economic Perspectives, 31(4), 163-184. doi:10.1257/jep.31.4.163
Stack, M. M., Pentecost, E. J., & Ravishankar, G. (2018). A Stochastic Frontier Analysis of Trade Efficiency for the New EU Member States: Implications of Brexit. Economic Issues, 23(1), 35-53.


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