1. Literature Review文獻綜述
In this paper, it focused on market-based cultural intelligence and firm performance. From the perspective of marketing, cross-cultural marketing reflects the willingness of enterprises to cope with the multicultural market by firstly understanding and meeting the influence of culture. Multinational marketing company will make marketing in two or more different countries. So, in order to cope with cultural diversity and different market demands, the globalization and internationalization make them pay more and more attention to research and application of cultural intelligence.
Because the market environment faced by multinational corporations is cross-cultural, involving markets, consumers, suppliers, government officials and other stakeholders in different cultural backgrounds, based on different cultural traditions and backgrounds, they show different beliefs, world views, values and preferences, hatreds, business rules, etc., which poses a huge challenge for multinational companies in cross-cultural marketing. It requires multinational companies to quickly understand demands of consumers and market rules in different cultural contexts, so as to be skilled in switching between markets with different cultural backgrounds.
Therefore, in the face of multicultural markets, it is believed that these companies must develop cross-cultural marketing capabilities or market-based cultural intelligence. The concept of cultural intelligence is a novel concept. The purpose of this paper is to find out the influence of cultural intelligence on performance. The purpose of this paper is to give a preliminary insight into the conceptualization and operation of cultural intelligence, thereby helping enterprises to effectively operate different market.
基本問題：This paper discusses the relationship between cultural intelligence and firm performance of multinational companies in a cross-cultural environment. In particular, this study explores the practical significance of cultural intelligence in the decision-making process of international marketing operations of multinational companies. In addition, the sample of this study mainly focuses on multinational companies in France and China. In Franc and China, they would face different marketing problems, such as different cultural backgrounds and consumption habits.
Main questions of this research:
What is the relationship between market-based cultural intelligence and the firm performance in a cross-cultural environment?
1: How to measure market-based cultural intelligence?
2: What are the antecedents of market-based cultural intelligence?
3: What are the consequences of market-based cultural intelligence?
1.2 Cultural intelligence
1.2.1 Definition of cultural intelligence
In 2003, Earley and Ang (2003) gave a definition of cultural intelligence: the ability of a person or an organization to adapt effectively to a new environment, it is an adaptation of intelligence which is manifested as a series of adaptive intelligent behaviors tied to new cultures and social beliefs, values. Through a survey of 2,000 managers in 60 countries, Earley, and Mosakowski (2004) portrayed the problems that low-cultural intellectuals are likely to encounter, and the opportunities that high-cultural intellectuals may have. The results showed that when people with low cultural intelligence enter a new cultural environment, they are relatively slow and lack insight to the changes of the new culture, making them have a resistance and be timid to communicate with people of different cultures around them, leading to their inability to integrate into the new cultural environment; while people with high cultural intelligence have higher sensitivity and adaptability to new cultures, when they enter new environment, face new teams and new colleagues, they can sensitively identify the differences between new cultures and their own culture, and actively seek their own changes and adapting to actively coordinate cultural conflicts and quickly integrate with new cultures to become a part of the new cultural environment.
The three-dimensional structures of the cultural intelligence proposed by Earley and Ang (2003) include: cognitive cultural intelligence, motivational cultural intelligence and behavioral cultural intelligence. Cognitive cultural intelligence refers to an individual's familiarity with the special norms, customs and practices of different social cultures. People with high cognitive cultural intelligence can often understand the economic, legal, and social systems of old and new cultures, and understand the similarities and differences between people of different cultural backgrounds. Motivational cultural intelligence refers to the enthusiasm and initiative of individuals to adapt to different cultures. People with high motivational cultural intelligence often have a strong interest in a new culture, driving their own initiative to pay attention to cross-cultural situations, and they are more confident to adapt to a new culture. Behavioral cultural intelligence refers to the adaptability of linguistic and non-verbal behaviors when individuals interact with people from different cultural backgrounds. People with high behavioral cultural intelligence can demonstrate appropriate behaviors in a new cultural environment based on their cultural cognitive abilities, the appropriate behaviors include proper speech, moderate tones, elegant manners, and natural expressions. In 2007, Ang et al. (2007) added the three-dimensional structures of cultural intelligence to a four-dimensional structure, adding metacognitive cultural intelligence. Metacognitive cultural intelligence means that individuals show sensitivity and perception when dealing with people from different cultural backgrounds. People with high-level cognitive cultural intelligence tend to be highly educated and have strategic thinking skills. They can quickly perceive, summarize the underlying rules when dealing with people from different cultural backgrounds, and make seemingly vague cross-cultural interactions clear and organized.
Thomas (Thomas, 2006) figured that cultural intelligence is constituted by the capability to adapt to a cross-cultural interaction context. In order to shape the context of a cross-cultural interaction, individuals should first have the ability of adaptation. Then, individuals can decide on, then construct appropriate behavior. He believes that cultural intelligence should include three dimensions: behavior, mindfulness, and knowledge. Knowledge refers to mastering culturally relevant knowledge and the basic principles that should be followed in intercultural communication, understanding what culture is and how culture affects people's behavior. In addition, he divided knowledge into content knowledge and process knowledge. Content knowledge mainly refers to the deep understanding and decoding of the essence of culture. Process knowledge mainly refers to knowledge that has a concern with the process of how cultural change affects behavior. Fundamentally, mindfulness is a heightened awareness of current experience or present reality. Brooks Peterson (2008) emphasized the importance of mindfulness in cultural intelligence and emphasized that mindfulness is the key to connecting knowledge and behavior. Behavior is based on knowledge and mindfulness, it means that people culturally intelligent cultivate a behavioral capability that helps them to become competent across different cultural situations.
Tan (2004) pointed out that cultural intelligence refers to the ability that people have to mitigate and manage the pressure brought by cultural shocks, as well as the ability to deal with discouraged and confused feelings arising from cultural differences, it is also people’s ability to quickly adjust and adapt to cross-cultural environments. He divided cultural intelligence into three dimensions: being full of vitality and persistence, cultural strategic thinking, and action in a certain way. Being full of vitality and persistence is consistent with the motivational cultural intelligence that Earley and Ang (2003) proposed, it mainly refers to the enthusiasm and initiative of people to adapt to different cultures. Action in a certain way is similar to the behavioral cultural intelligence mentioned by Earley and Ang (2003), that is, the adaptability of language and non-verbal behavior that individuals show when they interact with people from different cultural backgrounds. Cultural strategic thinking is similar to the cognitive cultural intelligence mentioned by Earley and Ang (2003). Cultural strategic thinking refers partly to an individual’s general thinking skills that he uses to understand how or why people in a culture new to that individual act. The three-dimensional model developed by Tan (2004) is generally similar to the three-dimensional model designed by Earley and Ang (2003). The slightly different is that Tan (2004) particularly emphasizes the important role of action in a certain way in cultural intelligence. The author believes that these three factors are mutually influential and to distinguish which is more important does not have much academic value.