Literature Review 文獻綜述
1.1 The definition of the performance management
Performance management refers to the efficiency and result level of an organization, a team or an individual in achieving a goal under specific resources, conditions, and circumstances(Blackburn, 2014). In management practice, performance mainly emphasizes the process of work activities and their results. Generally speaking, performance includes personal quality, work behavior, work style and work results. For the understanding of the performance with the development of the research and practice， which is deepening from the beginning the pursuit of quantity, gradually realize the importance of quality. In addition, an event to meet the demand, from the initial value to now focus on the results of the performance of behavior, from attending the current return to emphasize the future performance and so on, the connotation of production are also enriched continuously and perfect. Performance can be viewed from the organizational, team and individual levels. For an organization, performance is closely related to the organization's strategy and goals. Performance is the management effectiveness of an organization in the process of achieving goals and fulfilling functions. For the team, performance improves team capability and serves the organization better by improving team members' cooperation level and satisfaction. For an individual, performance management refers to an individual's efforts to achieve the goals of the team and organization through his or her behavioral ability and to achieve the goals in the process (Rana, 2011). It can be said that performance reflects the entire process of an organization, a team, and an individual making the desired goal in a certain way at a particular time.
As the organization's strategy and performance management or business plans, although ordinary members are internal to the organization operation, process and culture change factors, but they think it is not performance management focus on the primary object. He pointed out that performance management is to connect the work of each employee or manager with the purpose of the whole work unit, to support the overall career goals of the organization (Orozco, 2018). The historical development process of enterprise performance evaluation, to the study on the performance evaluation of their own to study its framework and method, then examine the effect of performance evaluation of enterprise strategy. In the process of enterprise performance evaluation, it is necessary to avoid falling into misunderstandings (West & Blackman, 2015). The effectiveness and accuracy of performance evaluation should be guaranteed by using different communication skills.
1.1.1 performance management methods績效管理方法
At present, popular performance appraisal methods mainly include 360-degree appraisal method, key performance index method, balanced scorecard method, and target management method. An important research direction of performance management methods is the study of performance evaluation methods. Edward points out that 360-degree assessment can serve both organizational development and organizational management (Amerine, et al., 2016). Most enterprises start to use it for internal control, but in the process of enterprise performance evaluation, employees may worry about their remuneration, promotion and so on. Enterprises of economic power in the top 12 performance evaluation research, are performance management domain the new evaluation method is proposed. Namely, the balanced scorecard method referred to as BSC; they suggest that enterprise managers or operators from closely related to corporate customers, internal business processes, innovation and learning, and four angles such as financial management to measure and determine enterprise performance level. In this paper, different interview methods of performance appraisal are studied in depth (Blackburn, 2014).
Model for academic performance management research focuses on the general performance management model and the application of quantitative evaluation model, performance management, performance comprehensive evaluation model and its use, performance management implementation model, strategy-oriented performance management model, etc. Due to the complexity of the construction and use of performance management application model, many management scientists have made relatively slow progress in the study of performance management application model due to the limitation of the professional and technical level. With bp's oil business as an object to establish a strict performance management model, to obtain about the key performance indicators and performance stipulated in the contract the action effect of reliable information (Rana, 2011).
1.1.2 Dimensions of performance management
Early, most scholars believe that performance is unidimensional, its task is to put as the main content of the performance review, for example, that performance is in a specific period, have a particular job function or activity of output records. Last century, however, with the development of the economy and the transformation of the organizational structure, the scholars found that the performance is not just a unidimensional concept, its connotation is beyond the traditional sense of the behavior. As a result, extends to the attention to behavior process. Put forward the performance of the model, the production is divided into eight different aspects, namely the work proficiency, proficiency in non-work related, work performance, written and oral communication skills, assist colleagues with the team, discipline, supervision, management and administrative ability and leadership, etc., these efforts in the work performance, work-related proficiency performance and control were the main factors. It is considered that job performance is a multi-dimensional concept, and the behavior and results of production should be understood from multiple perspectives. Although the model is lengthy, it shows that there are two kinds of actions related to job performance, which are named task performance and peripheral performance respectively through research. Task performance is an in-job behavior clearly defined, and its useful predictors are cognitive ability. Task performance is adjusted with the change of position and position. Peripheral performance is considered. Besides that, the production of organizational characteristics and organization are closely related to the factors such as psychological environment. Behavior is a relationship between the organization and randomness of employees in production, including the motivation to maintain the excellent working relationship, interpersonal relationships and help others to finish the work efficiently (Pater, 2012). They are in different positions and duties between the difference is not apparent. Chinese scholars make adopted confirmatory factor analysis method, such as in Chinese culture under the background of inspection on the structure of the task performance and the surrounding performance difference. The results show that the two can be a strict distinction between in the structure, and the research under the background of Chinese culture also verified the two factors of the performance of scientific nature and rationality of the model. Later, some scholars by task performance and contextual performance increase adaptive performance, the performance of three-dimensional structure model is put forward, namely to seek to adapt to unfamiliar or change the situation of employees. People to adapt to the production, such as exploratory study, eight factors of adaptive performance classification model is put forward (Ulrych, 2011). Namely, deal with emergency and crisis, deal with work pressure, creative problem solving and dealing with uncertain and unpredictable work situation, job skills, and procedures, show interpersonal adaptability, show a cultural flexibility, show the body orientation of resilience and so on. By studying various performance models, a four-dimensional conceptual model of work performance, namely, task performance, relational performance, learning performance and innovation performance, is proposed. They believe that the performance dimensions of these four dimensions are a continuous dynamic and continuous cycle of rising process. Through the above, the literature work performance of induction, which is beneficial to clarify the connotation of the production and development, and also for the choice of performance measurement dimension in this study provides an essential theoretical basis.