With the development of China's economy and the deepening of globalization, more and more Chinese enterprises have become multinational enterprises. Multinational enterprises face many risks. Among them, cultural conflicts are one of the most important factors for the failure of international business operations of the enterprises. The research object of this paper, Huawei was founded in 1987 in Shenzhen, China, in more than 30 years, Huawei has gradually developed into a global company with operations in many countries around the world (Lin, Liu, Han and Chen, 2018), since the beginning of the 21st century, Huawei has begun to explore the European and American markets. The UK is one of Huawei's most important markets, because the UK market is mature, the market is large, and the demonstration effect is good. If Huawei can succeed in the UK market, it is of great help for the success of Huawei in the global market. Huawei has been working in the UK market for more than 10 years, and has already succeeded in fastening in the UK market. However, if it wants to succeed in the UK market, it needs to further improve its management, marketing, public relations, brand image and many other aspects. Judging from the internal of the enterprise, Huawei is a multinational Chinese company, its employees come from all over the world. The cultural background of employees varies greatly. Huawei's corporate culture emphasizes the wolf-like corporate culture and encourages employees to work overtime. The corporate culture does not match most of the global corporate and national cultures. Therefore, for Huawei, how to coordinate the difference between the corporate wolf culture and the background culture of employees is a key factor in its management success. Considering from the outside of the company, Huawei is the best company in China. However, European and American consumers have long negative stereotypes about Chinese companies, and there have been many conflicts between Huawei’s corporate culture and British business culture. Huawei needs to take reasonable cross-cultural measures to solve it. This article takes Huawei's UK branch as an example to discuss the characteristics of its current cross-cultural management, and analyze the shortcomings to suggest for Huawei's improvement. This paper first introduces the relevant theories of cross-cultural management including social cognitive theory, stereotype and cross-cultural leadership theories. Then it presents and analyzes Huawei's current cross-cultural management measures, by evaluating these measures to propose improvements.
2.0 Main body主體
2.1 Literature review 文獻綜述
2.1.1 Social cognitive theory社會認知理論
In order to achieve the effectiveness of cross-cultural communication, whether the two sides can correctly understand the self culture, other cultures and each other's language structure is an important prerequisite (Nadeem, Raza, Kayani, Aziz and Nayab, 2018). Lack of a correct understanding of each other's culture and language and behavioral habits can only lead to the failure of cross-cultural communication. Scholars have studied factors affecting cognition in terms of context, personality characteristics and scenarios. First, in cultural dimension theory, it believes that the culture of each country has a difference between high-context culture and low-context culture (Hou, Fan, Tan, Hua and Valdez, 2018). The language expressed by people with high-context culture contains more implicit meaning than low-context culture, while the language of low-context culture is more direct. In cross-cultural communication, both parties in communication must have an accurate understanding of each other's context, in order to correctly understand each other's literal and implied meanings, by using appropriate language to accurately communicate.
Second, Usunier’s (2011) research indicates that cross-cultural management usually requires correct understanding of other cultures, but often neglects people's perception of their own culture. For individuals in a strong culture, correct perception of their own culture can prevent them from imposing their own opinions on others, thus avoiding cultural conflicts. For individuals in a weak culture, a correct understanding of their own culture can enhance their confidence in their own culture and help them to achieve better cross-cultural communication.
Third, people's understanding of other cultures comes from cognition, which is also influenced by contextual factors. Nadeem, Raza, Kayani, Aziz and Nayab (2018) believe that context information such as competition, unequal status, conflict of goals and unfairness has a significant negative impact on cognition. Context information such as uneasiness, feeling threatened and being frustrated may also have negative consequences for cognition. In the process of cross-cultural management, management should try to avoid the negative impact caused by context factors on employees, otherwise it is easy to lead to cultural conflicts between employees of different cultural backgrounds.
In terms of cross-cultural communication theories, different scholars have different definitions of stereotypes in their discussions, but they all tend to be derogatory. For example, Ward and Ravlin (2017) believe that stereotype is the wrong judgment formed by people in all cultures for the characteristics of members of different cultural groups. At the same time, they also hold that if some traits in a heterogeneous culture recur, people will think that these traits apply to all people in the culture, so stereotypes are easy to form. McCrae, Chan, Jussim, Fruyt and Terracciano (2013) consider stereotypes to be expectations or ideas that exaggerate the characteristics of a particular cultural group. Stereotypes are an over-generalization of the identity of a group without considering the individual characteristics of that group. Bartel-Radic and Giannellon (2017) emphasize the over-generalization of stereotypes. It is the over-generalization of certain things that makes people's understanding of things too simple, one-sided and exaggerated. Ward and Ravlin (2017) define that stereotypes are fixed concepts formed by people for a certain group, and this concept does not take into account the differences in individual traits.” Hofstede’s dissatisfaction with stereotypes is manifested in that he believes that stereotypes cause long-term incorrect, rigid, one-sided views of one ethnic group to another during cross-cultural communication, which can easily lead to cultural conflicts.
In general, cross-cultural scholars believe that stereotypes are a simple summary of the characteristics of members of other cultural groups. This simplification of understanding does not cover the different characteristics of individuals, leading to misconceptions about other cultural groups as a whole, and these biases will also be solidified to cause cultural conflicts. Therefore, the general attitude to stereotypes in the study and management of cross-cultural communication is negative.
2.1.3 Cross-cultural leadership
Cross-cultural leadership usually refers to the abilities, qualities, and ideas that cross-cultural team leaders should possess (Bird and Mendenhall, 2016). A cross-cultural team is a team of people from different cultures and with different work styles who come together to work together for a common goal. In addition to the problems that arise in general teams, the cross-cultural work team's internal communication problems, membership culture integration issues and the internal values of the members will determine the efficiency of the cross-cultural team and the employees’ recognition of the organization. Cross-cultural leadership has some special characteristics compared to general leadership, such as organizational skills, team building capabilities, and operational capabilities. Hanges, Aiken, Park and Su (2016) believe that cross-cultural communication skills are an important feature of cross-cultural leadership. For example, it is possible to accurately understand the cultural differences between employees of different cultural backgrounds and to accurately convey information in a complex cross-cultural environment. Martinelli and Erzikova (2017) propose that cross-cultural leadership, including cultural integration, requires leaders to learn and understand other cultures correctly, and to integrate other cultures with corporate culture, so that employees of different cultural backgrounds can recognize the culture and values of the company. Hanges, Aiken, Park and Su (2016) point out from the external risks of multinational corporations that cross-cultural leadership also includes cultural interaction ability, which mainly refers to guiding multinational enterprises to interact with local culture and increasing the understanding, acceptance of local consumers to the enterprises.