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福州雷恩设计:基于正念的壓力降低(MBSR)英國assignment:Mindfulness-based stress reducti

時間:2019-08-21 11:13來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
正念是充實的,豐富了心靈的意義。答:意識是通過一個目的地來專注于當下,而不是判斷一個有意識的意識對另一個時刻的體驗,以及出現的意識。正念思想的核心在于兩點:一是關注當下;
正念是充實的,豐富了心靈的意義。答:意識是通過一個目的地來專注于當下,而不是判斷一個有意識的意識對另一個時刻的體驗,以及出現的意識。正念思想的核心在于兩點:一是關注當下;二是不評論當下提出的所有觀點(Rahnama等人,2014年)。注意“現在”和“沒有判斷力”是基于“正念”理論的心理治療的核心思想和主要方法。核心是正念的訓練方法,是以“關注當下”和“不判斷”為核心和基礎的技術,以開放接受的態度來接受當前的思想、情感、癥狀。
Mindfulness is plump; enrich the meaning of the mind. A: awareness is through a destination to focus on the present, not to judge a conscious awareness of another moment of experience, and emerged awareness. Mindfulness thought core lies in two points: one is to focus on the present; the second is not commenting on all the ideas presented at the moment (Rahnama et.,al,2014). "Attention to the present" and "no judgment" are both the core ideas and main methods of psychotherapy based on the theory of "mindfulness". The core is mindfulness training method, is based on "pay attention to the present" and "not judged" as the core and basic technology, claims in an open and accepting attitude to accept the current of thoughts, emotions, symptoms.
在這種精神訓練中,重點是有意識的意識、對現在的關注,以及對現在的任何概念缺乏判斷。因此,正念是有目的的和有意識的,注意去感知每件事物的存在,每件事都是暫時的,不做任何判斷,任何分析,任何反應,僅僅意識到它,注意它。正念對于人們的心理問題具有很好的通道作用,“能幫助我們從這種惰性和無知中解脫出來,而沒有睡醒的狀態,有意識地、無意識地觸摸各種可能的生活。”因此,在現代心理學中,正念已經發展成為一種很好的通道作用。系統的心理治療,也就是正念療法。所謂正念療法是一種基于正念的心理療法。正念療法不是一種心理療法,所謂的心理療法,而是一個系列,系列心理療法有一個共同的特點,即基于“正念”的方法。目前成熟的正念療法包括正念減壓療法、正念認知療法和辯證行為療法。
In this spiritual training, the emphasis is on conscious awareness, attention to the present, and the absence of judgment on any concept of the present. Therefore, mindfulness is purposeful and conscious, attention to perceive the presence of everything, everything for the moment and does not make any judgment, any analysis, any response, simply aware of it, to pay attention to it. Mindfulness for people's psychological problems has the very good channel role, "can help us from this inertia and ignorance without the state of sleep wake up, to touch the lives of all possibilities, consciously and unconsciously." Therefore, in modern psychology, mindfulness has been developed into a systematic psychotherapy, that is, mindfulness therapy. The so-called mindfulness therapy is a psychological therapy based on mindfulness. Mindfulness therapy is not a kind of psychological therapy, said of the psychotherapy, but rather a series, the series of psychological therapy have a common characteristic, that is based on the method of "mindfulness". Current mature mindfulness therapies include mindfulness decompression therapy, mindfulness cognitive therapy, and dialectical behavior therapy.
Mindfulness has been defined as ‘‘moment-to-moment awareness'' or a ‘‘systematic approach to developing new kinds of control and wisdom in our lives, based on our inner capacities for relaxation, paying attention, awareness, and insight'' This approach has been used in structured, evidence-based group programs called mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), which focus on empowerment, nonjudgmental interpretation of events, and acceptance of the present situation using mindful meditation practices and gentle stretching (Huskens et.,al, 2015).
Lego therapy
Lego therapy can promote children's social interactions, probably because it is a highly structured, predictable, and systematization of toys, and cognitive style of autism groups tend to be systematic, easily attracted by a systematic object. Systematization refers to a process of induction, which is a drive to understand and construct a system based on "if-then" rules. Lego treatment was attached lego intervention methods, its core is to use the internal cooperation and interdependence of stress the therapist to the child and the guidance of the identification of the same target to consolidate and strengthen communication and exchanges, to create mutual concern, the necessity of social interaction and collaboration. In the intervention, the therapist to support and guide the whole process, but not really to join the group activities, also is not a substitute for children deal with the problem, whether, in the face of conflict or setback, children need help each other to solve.
Since 1949, the first piece of Lego plastic blocks, Lego toys are geared to the needs of all children, with rich and expansion of Lego product, its audience from the children gradually extended to teenagers, even has attracted a lot of adults. Lego, which initially targeted children with autism spectrum disorders, has only recently expanded its interventions to include children with social dysfunction. As a result, Lego has a smaller audience.
Lego building games develop children's abilities of cognition, fine movements, and hand-eye coordination by using their own hands and brains. They can also experience a sense of achievement and pleasure after finishing the work. In daily construction, children do not deliberately emphasize social interaction, which is the focus of lego therapy and the main purpose of intervention. Lego therapy is aimed at children with different levels of social disorder, providing them with a large number of verbal and nonverbal communication opportunities during the intervention process, enabling them to initiate and maintain interaction.
Children are free to build Lego bricks (Barakova et.,al, 2015). There is no unified process and requirement. Every child can have different playing time, playing mode and partners. In contrast, lego therapy is a structured intervention, with fixed operating modes and procedures, as well as specific rules and disciplines. Adults need to evaluate the development of children before the intervention, and then choose a suitable model for children, and strictly follow the intervention requirements.
The construction of common Lego bricks does not have any restrictions on the number and development of children, whether adults join or not. But in lego therapy, in addition to the target, adults and peers are also important. Adult intervention activities need to be involved in all the way, to support and guide the process, and companion in the process of intervention object the cooperation model, should actively and its communication, improve their ability of social communication.
Differences in the respective of the school setting between these approaches 
Hands-on, self-building. In the theory of cognitive development, people's thinking, the cognitive structure is in the process of the interaction between subject and object, and the process needs to be the adjustment of the individual subjective initiative, self-choice, and the initiative construction need to body. An action is the source of knowledge and the medium of interaction between subject and object. Young children's knowledge is not through the infusion, taught teachers and other adults, but in a certain sense of the environment in the background, the learners' interaction with the environment, through the meaningful construction way and get, its essence is the learner's self-building (Dhanalakshmi, 2016).
General development trend of children's thinking: from concrete thinking to abstract thinking, that is, from action thinking to image thinking, and then to abstract logical thinking. Often while playing I think, once the movement stops, the thinking goes to stop is 3 years old children's thinking characteristics, 4, 6 years old children's thinking characteristics it can get rid of the specific things, actions, rely on brain representation for Lenovo, use of already know, seen, heard knowledge to ponder over a problem. Lego education advocates learning in practice and learning in practice, which is in line with children's thinking characteristics. At the same time, the different sets of lego bricks can meet the demand of young children's thinking, such as "engineering building", "baby home" suits, these high lifelike building blocks can help children get the relevant things of intuitive perception, by observing the imitation, to build the image, the works of molding to obtain the overall understanding of such things; And some blocks suit, such as "conventional building blocks", "pipeline building blocks", "mechanical" early suit, is an alternative to a certain extent, help children in the process of building alternative, and characterized by material or material generation people, promote the concrete visual thinking to abstract logical thinking development.
According to the learning theory of constructivism and the teaching concept of "discovery learning", Lego education has formed a unique 4C learning experience mode, namely Connect, Construct, conceive and Continue (Burke, Chan, & Neece, 2017).
Connect: that is, the connection between each other. At the beginning of the learning activities, principal zhang children of lego education should establish the connection between the new knowledge and the original experience. Constructivist learning theory holds that learning should take place in real learning tasks, emphasizing diverse, meaningful and situational information provision. Lego education requires teachers in teaching for 3-6 years old children, should not be too much emphasis on knowledge in today's novelty, but should help children to build new knowledge and the connection between the original experience, find out the relationship between it, make the experience gained by the more systematic, at the same time also prompted by contacting children found new problems.


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