1. Introduction 介紹
This paper will discuss whether the social enterprise and social entrepreneurship will address the issue of systemic poverty or not from the view of the Cape Town social entrepreneurship. In the process of fighting poverty, occurrence of government failure, market failure and weak power of the poverty group makes the role of social enterprise and social entrepreneurship to be necessary. There are totally three parts of the paper, which are introduction, discussion and conclusion.
2. The discussion on the topic 關于這個話題的討論
2.1. The relationship between social enterprise and the issue of systemic poverty社會企業與系統性貧困問題的關系
The social enterprise is neither the traditional enterprise for economic profits nor the general social services. The social enterprises make profits to make contributions to the society through the commercial techniques. The social enterprises help the weak groups and promote the development of community with the profits earned . They pay more attentions to the social value rather than the maximum profits of the enterprises (Fotheringham & Saunders, 2014). The systemic poverty, as its name suggests, is the poverty mainly caused by the institutional arrangement of a region or a country. The social enterprise has an effect on solving the poverty of the society. Part of the poverty of the society is caused by systemic poverty. Therefore, it does have a relationship between the social enterprises and the issue of systemic poverty. 社會企業既不是傳統的經濟效益企業，也不是一般的社會服務企業。社會企業通過商業技術為社會做出貢獻，實現盈利。社會企業以盈利幫助弱勢群體，促進社區發展。他們更注重社會價值而不是企業的最大利潤（Fotheringham&Saunders，2014）。系統性貧困，顧名思義，主要是一個地區或一個國家的制度安排造成的貧困。社會企業對解決社會貧困有一定的作用。社會的部分貧困是由系統性貧困造成的。因此，它確實與社會企業和系統性貧困問題有關。
2.2. View on whether social enterprise will address the issue of systemic poverty關于社會企業能否解決系統性貧困問題的看法
In my opinion, the social enterprise and social and social entrepreneurship will be much helpful for addressing the issue of systemic poverty. However, the social enterprise and social and social entrepreneurship cannot totally address the issue of systemic poverty. In the following, this argument will be made by the example of Cape Town and the current global social enterprise development.
2.2.2. Actual examples and reasoning.
On the one hand, the social enterprise and social and social entrepreneurship will be much helpful for addressing the issue of systemic poverty. In the Cape Town, the poverty reduction is the important field to which the social enterprises pay attention. The effect of social enterprises could be analyzed from the aspects including the indirect and direct effect mechanisms.
Directly, the social enterprises in Cape Town could reduce the poverty from the ways of donation, assistance, industrial development and so on (Swardt et al., 2005). For example, the social enterprises raise financing in the form of commercial activities and donate supplies for the poverty area, thus solving the problem of material shortage. Secondly, the human resource and technical assistance can also fill the gap of donating supplies. Owning to the shortage of human resource, advanced techniques, the social enterprise in Cape Town also provide talents to the poverty areas and technical or skill training for the local people. In addition, in the process of local social entrepreneurship reducing poverty, they also change the local pattern of life. Under the above ways, the poverty could be solved effectively.
In directly, the social enterprise and social and social entrepreneurship could be much helpful for addressing the issue of system poverty in the following ways. First, there are a large number of poor people in poor areas as poor areas lack the industry to absorb labours. The social enterprises in poor areas could be able to make low skilled workers to return to work by the skill training or providing jobs. Second, the overall improvement of the region's economy will increase government revenues. So government investment in public services, poverty alleviation and metastatic pay will be increased.
But, the social enterprise and social entrepreneurship cannot totally address the issue of systemic poverty. Unlike other kinds of poverty, the deepest reason leading to the system poverty is the unreasonable system. For example, the racial segregated system in the Cape Town before produced poverty in South Africa (Parnell & Mosdell, 2003). Under the system, even if the social enterprise and social entrepreneurship provide much help for reducing the poverty, the social enterprise and social entrepreneurship have to act under the limitation of the system (Theron & Graaff, 1987). Thus, the role of the social enterprise and social entrepreneurship is limited. Therefore, to address the issue of systemic poverty, it needs both the help of the social enterprise and social entrepreneurship and the improvement of unreasonable system.
This paper discusses whether the social enterprise and social entrepreneurship will address the issue of systemic poverty. In the author’s opinion, the social enterprise and social and social entrepreneurship will be much helpful for addressing the issue of systemic poverty. But it cannot totally address the issue of systemic poverty. It also needs the improvement of unreasonable system.
Fotheringham, S. & Saunders, C. (2014). Social enterprise as poverty reducing strategy for women. Social Enterprise Journal, 10(3) pp.176-199
Parnell, S & Mosdell, T. (2003). Recognising, Explaining and Measuring Chronic Urban Poverty in South Africa” online. African Human Rights Resource Center (//www.1. umn.edu/humanrts/africa/ index.html)
Swardt, C. et al. (2005). Urban Ppoverty in Cape Town. Livelihoods, Cape Town, 17(2), pp. 101-111
Theron, F. & Graaff, J. (1987). Rural–Urban Migration: Aspects of Theory, Policy and Practice, University Publishers and Booksellers, Stellenbosch.