Research purpose of this article was to discuss how Foxconn made use of employee relationship management system to manage post-90s employees. Based on relevant literatures of employee relationship management and empirical research results, the author built the theoretical foundation. Through quantitative research methods and 150 copies of questionnaires to collect data, the results of the questionnaire survey showed that the post-90s employees gave a moderate evaluation on Foxconn's employee relationship management system; there was a moderately positive correlation between the post-90s employees’ evaluation on Foxconn's employee relationship management and their job satisfaction, loyalty towards the company, and working enthusiasm. It indicated that Foxconn’s continued improvement of its employee relationship management was helpful to improve the job satisfaction, working enthusiasm, and loyalty of its post-90s employees. To avoid the occurrence of suicide incident, Foxconn should consider improving its employee relationship management to achieve this goal. Limitations of this study included that the possible participation bias and possible response bias may lead respondents to give low evaluation of Foxconn’s employee relationship management. In the end, the author recommend from three aspects: managing employees based on laws, paying attention to the communication with the post-90s staff, and realizing individual and organizational common development for Foxconn to improve employee relationship management. This has certain reference value for Foxconn’s human resources management.
2010-2014年，富士康16名員工連續自殺（Christos，2015），引起了全世界的關注，人們批評富士康是一家血汗工廠，員工過度工作導致了無法承受的壓力（Enderwick和Buckley，2017）。然而，作為一家世界知名的鑄造公司，富士康嚴格的管理制度已經實施了大約20年，為什么以前什么都沒有發生過。作者認為，這與越來越多的90后一代在富士康的參與有關。數據顯示，2014年，富士康90后一代員工比例超過50%（Christos，2015年）。90年代以后，中國這一代人的成長環境與前人有很大的不同。首先，他們的生活環境比他們的前輩更豐富。他們不是為了錢加班的。二是更加個性化，不習慣在嚴格的管理制度下工作。第三，他們更清楚自己的權利。他們更加重視維護自己的權利，希望得到更多的重視和尊重。簡言之，這一代員工出生于20世紀90年代之后（90年代后員工），相對于之前的員工，在壓縮能力、職業需求和正確意識方面，他們與他們的前任（Peng、Wong和Song，2016），如果原始設備制造商（Original Equipment Manu）富士康（Foxconn）等生產商無法正確認識90后員工的特點，完善自己的管理體系，因此類似的事情將在未來繼續下去，這將影響公司的聲譽。
During 2010-2014, 16 Foxconn’ employees committed suicide consecutively (Christos, 2015), which caused the world's attention, people have criticized Foxconn as a sweatshop, staff overwork led to unbearable pressure (Enderwick and Buckley, 2017). However, as a world-renowned foundry company, Foxconn's strict management system has been implemented for about 20 years and why nothing has happened before. The author believed that this was related to the participation of more and more post-90s generation in Foxconn. Data show that in 2014, proportion of employees of post-90s generation in Foxconn exceeded 50% (Christos, 2015). After 90s, the growth environment of this generation in China is quite different from that of its predecessors. First, their living environment is richer than their predecessors’. They do not work overtime for money. Second, they are more individualized and not accustomed to working under strict management systems. Third, they are even more aware of their rights. They attach more importance to safeguarding their own rights and hope they are attached more importance and respected. In short, employees of this generation were born after 1990s (post-90s employees), it is relative to the previous staff in the compression capacity, career demands and right awareness that they are quite different from their predecessors (Peng, Wong and Song, 2016), if OEMs (original equipment manufacturer) such as Foxconn can not properly recognize the characteristics of post-90s employees and improve their own management system, so similar things will continue in the future, which will hit the reputation of the company.
2. Research purpose and questions
2.1 Research purpose
Foxconn’s past success is closely related to its rigid management system (Enderwick, 2018), with the increase of post-90s employees, Foxconn should consider add a number of flexible factors in the management and reform some of the system in order to be able to better help the employees to reduce their work pressure to improve their work enthusiasm and loyalty. Employee relationship management can be considered as one of the measures for Foxconn to take into consideration. Research purpose of this paper is to discuss how Foxconn makes use of employee relationship management to manage post-90s employees, based on the research purpose established, it develops the following research questions.
2.2 Research questions
Research question 1: To understand Foxconn’s current status quo of employee relationship management, this article focused on the status quo of Foxconn's employee relationship management by collecting data on post-90s employees’ evaluation on Foxconn's employee relationship management.
Research question 2: To understand the impact of Foxconn’s employee relationship management system on its post-90s employees, this article was mainly through the correlation analysis to understand the impact of Foxconn’s employee relationship management status on its post-90s employee’s loyalty, job satisfaction and working enthusiasm.
Research question 3: To recommend on how Foxconn reforms its employee relationship management system.
2.3 Research hypothesis
Based on the research background and Christos’s (2015), the following research hypotheses have been proposed.
Research hypothesis 1: the post-90s employees are not satisfied with Foxconn's current employee relationship management status.
Research hypothesis 2: The inadequacy of Foxconn's employee relationship management has reduced the post-90s employees’ loyalty, job satisfaction, and working enthusiasm.
3. Literature review
3.1 Definition and characteristics of employee relationship management
Employee relationship management is the realization of an organization's goals by ensuring that the managers of the enterprise are through the formulation and implementation of human resource policies, management practices and other means of management and communication to regulate the interconnection and influence between the enterprise and employees, employees to achieve value-added purposes for the employees and the society (Strohmeier, 2013). Employee relationship management more uses flexible, motivational, non-mandatory means to improve employee satisfaction and support an organization to achieve other management objectives (Ver?i? and Voki?, 2017). Its main responsibilities are: to coordinate the relationship between employees and managers, employees and employees, and guide the establishment of a positive and progressive working environment (Lemon and Palenchar, 2018).
From the perspective of management, employee relationship management embodies the humanistic management thinking. From the perspective of Maslow's hierarchy theory of needs, employee relationship management helps to meet employees' high-level needs such as self-esteem and self-realization. Judging from two-factor theory point of view, employee relationship management helps to improve the incentive factors to help improve employee satisfaction. Considering from the perspective of stakeholder theory, the use of employee relationship management is a manifestation of corporate managers’ valuing the interests of employees and taking employees as the core interests of the enterprises.
3.2 Content of employee relationship management
Men (2011) elaborates the content of employee relationship management from the aspect of enterprise's rigid management, including: formulating and implementing scientific evaluation standards and systems, labor dispute handling system, employee induction, leaving-post interview and formalities, organizing employee training. Moskovich and Achouch (2017) were from the perspective of enterprises’ flexible management to describe the work content of employee relationship management, including guiding employees to abide by a company's rules and regulations, guiding employees to establish a good working relationship, guiding two-way communication in a company and improving employee suggestion system, organizing staff attitude, satisfaction survey to address what staff concerns, building a positive corporate culture, guiding staff values, maintaining a good corporate image, helping employees to balance the relationship between work and life.